As you can see, the stack ends with “true”. If you want to learn more about P2PKH and why it’s popular, there are a ton of resources on the web. Search Google for “P2PKH” to find out more.
Pay-to-Script-Hash addresses move the responsibility of supplying the payment conditions to the spender.
Remember when I said a moment ago that the spender’s ScriptSig can’t include non-data code? Forget that for a moment—P2SH changes everything.
Instead of writing spending conditions inside ScriptPubKey, that code goes inside a RedeemScript. Yes, that’s a new term—in loose non-technical words, it refers to the “real” puzzle for the output. When you send coins to a P2SH address, the ScriptPubKey contains a hash of the spending coniditons code. It looks like:
OP_HASH160 <RedeemScriptHash> OP_EQUAL
A spender of a P2SH input provides two things in their ScriptSig:
Miners will first verify that the hash of RedeemScript matches the hash in ScriptPubKey. If it does, it will unpack the RedeemScript, put Signature above it, and execute.
LocalCryptos uses Pay-to-Witness-Script-Hash (P2WSH) addresses for escrows instead of P2SH. To be precise, we use a P2WSH wrapped inside of a P2SH (i.e. P2SH-P2WSH).
The difference between a P2WSH and a P2SH is that in a P2WSH, the old RedeemScript goes inside a new “Witness Script” field.
If you haven’t learnt about SegWit, please pretend LocalCryptos’ escrow uses standard P2SH. It will make as much sense. Using Segregated Witness improves the escrow’s efficiency and cost, and nothing more.
Off the bat, there’s a good chance you’re assuming LocalCryptos uses multi-signature addresses. You won’t find OP_CHECKMULTISIG in the code.
In a multi-signature script, each signer is a party to the spending transaction. In our model, LocalCryptos never has to sign any part of the transaction—even in a payment dispute.
In true peer-to-peer fashion, we are never a party to any transaction. Because we’re not a party, it’s impossible for us to impose spending conditions on escrows—such as how and when the receiving party can spend Bitcoin.
Our mechanism is especially useful for in-person exchanges. Users are able to release Bitcoin from escrow without access to the internet. It will be possible to trigger a release by sending an SMS with a unique code, or by showing a QR to the buyer. More on that later.
The first thing you do when you create a LocalCryptos account is generate a lot of random keys and sign them. Of course, this happens in the background—ordinary users won’t notice it.
These ephemeral keys come in three categories, two of which are relevant to BTC escrows.
The unrelated category of random keys created at sign-up are end-to-end encryption keys. These keys allow people to begin encrypted conversations with you while you’re offline. LocalCryptos borrows this idea from popular forward-secret encrypted messaging apps such as Signal. You can learn more about it in LocalEthereum’s original white paper.
When you generate a Bitcoin address in your non-custodial LocalCryptos wallet, you also upload a signed version to LocalCryptos. When the web wallet is setting itself up, it creates and signs hundreds of Bitcoin addresses.
Encrypted copies of your private keys are also uploaded to allow you to log in from another device.
The same process occurs for our other web wallets, including Ethereum.
This allows others to open trades with you and fund escrows, even while you’re offline. Users fetch one of your addresses from us, and check the signature against your public key. Doing so helps avoid the risk of a complex man-in-the-middle attack.
Escrow keys are unique to Bitcoin escrows, as Ethereum’s escrow system is different.
Escrow keys are 32-byte secret codes which you can reveal later. You generate a hash of the secret code (using hash160) and sign the hash. Then, you upload the hashed code, signature, and an encrypted secret code to LocalCryptos.
To put BTC in escrow, the seller creates a Bitcoin transaction containing two outputs. One output is for the amount being escrowed, and the other is LocalCryptos’ refundable fee.
Before doing so, the seller needs to fetch some details from LocalCryptos:
The seller will confirm each of the buyer’s signatures are valid before proceeding. An incorrect signature means that a hacker has attempted to tamper with the escrow.
The escrow output, which carries the amount for the buyer, is a P2SH-P2WSH address for the following Script:
OP_DUP OP_1 OP_EQUAL OP_IF # Release by seller OP_DROP <BuyerPubKeyHash> <ReleaseCodeFromSellerHash> OP_ELSE OP_DUP OP_2 OP_EQUAL OP_IF # Release by arbitrator OP_DROP <BuyerPubKeyHash> <ReleaseCodeFromArbitratorHash> OP_ELSE OP_DUP OP_3 OP_EQUAL OP_IF # Return by buyer OP_DROP <SellerPubKeyHash> <ReturnCodeFromBuyerHash> OP_ELSE OP_4 OP_EQUALVERIFY # Return by arbitrator <SellerPubKeyHash> <ReturnCodeFromArbitratorHash> OP_ENDIF OP_ENDIF OP_ENDIF OP_ROT OP_HASH160 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_OVER OP_HASH160 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG
The fee output carries an amount of Bitcoin approximately 1% of the trade’s size. LocalCryptos will claim the fee if the trade is successful. If there’s a cancellation, the seller can unlock the output to claim a full refund.
The fee output is a P2SH-P2WSH address for the folowing Script:
OP_DUP OP_3 OP_EQUAL OP_IF # Return by buyer OP_DROP OP_HASH160 <ReturnCodeFromBuyerHash> OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_DUP OP_HASH160 <SellerPubKeyHash> OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG OP_ELSE OP_DUP OP_4 OP_EQUAL OP_IF # Return by arbitrator OP_DROP OP_HASH160 <ReturnCodeFromArbitratorHash> OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_DUP OP_HASH160 <SellerPubKeyHash> OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG OP_ELSE # Spend by LocalCryptos OP_DUP OP_HASH160 <ArbitratorPubKeyHash> OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG OP_ENDIF OP_ENDIF
LocalCryptos requires most Bitcoin escrows to have at least one block confirmation. Larger trades need up to six confirmations depending on the size of the exchange.
The buyer already has one of the two inputs needed to unlock the escrow transaction: their own public key. The only missing piece is the seller’s secret “releaseBySeller” code.
Likewise, the seller is only one input away from unlocking the escrow. If they get their hands on the buyer’s secret “returnByBuyer” code, they can recall the amount in escrow.
The arbitrator holds the secret code to the “releaseByArbitrator” and “returnByArbitrator” escrow keys. If a payment dispute arises, the arbitrator can make a resolution by revealing one of the secrets.
This is the crux of the non-custodial escrow system. The hashed script includes the hash of each secret code, but not the real thing.
To spend an escrow output, the receiver needs to compile a signature with the following items:
The first two items are identical to spending a P2PKH input, and the next two are unique to LocalCryptos.
The “action” byte will tell the script which hashes to check. In a standard trade, a buyer will use a “release by seller” code (
0x01). If the first item is
0x01, the script will expect the buyer’s public key and the seller’s release code.
There are four escrow actions, representing all the scenarios of an escrow:
|Action||Byte||Expected code||Expected PubKey|
In the case of an escrow cancellation, LocalCryptos doesn’t charge a a fee. We only take a fee if the Bitcoin goes to the buyer.
With a return escrow code, the above signature is also compatible with fee output. The seller can spend the fee output in the same way they spend a recalled escrow UTXO.
Clicking “Release” in a LocalCryptos Bitcoin escrow doesn’t change anything on the blockchain. It allows the receiving party to spend the coins from escrow (i.e. unlock the UTXO).
The receiving party can choose to spend these coins immediately, or they can wait. In the user-interface, an escrow UTXO will appear in the web wallet next to your regular addresses.
After spending the coins, the escrow’s completion is permanently etched into the blockchain.
All the buyer needs is the seller’s secret code to claim the escrow.
We can add a method for a seller to reveal their code without an internet connection. The code is too long to write on paper, but it’s a perfect length to store in your phone or a QR code.
LocalCryptos is going to add two new ways to reveal a code:
1. Reveal the code by sending it in an SMS to one of our phone numbers. Our servers can compute the code’s hash to identify which trade it belongs to, then forward the code to the buyer.
2. Show a QR code to the buyer. The buyer doesn’t need the internet to verify the code; they only need a piece of software that can calculate a hash. This method will enable in-person exchanges when neither has a stable internet connection. It will be useful in Venezuela, where national power outages are a common occurrence.
We’re working on the first option today. The second option will become available when we release the LocalCryptos mobile app.
The best supercomputer can’t break a standard P2PKH address, which uses a single hash. The key space of a hash160 is 160 bits. We use two hash160s: one for the P2PKH part, and one for the hashed secret code. This brings the key space to 320 bits for external attackers. (The math is more nuanced than that, but you get the idea.)
LocalCryptos Bitcoin escrow addresses are—for all intents and purposes—impossible to crack.
We’ve reduced network fees by upgrading to Segregated Witness. However, the cost of a Bitcoin transaction is often higher than Ethereum.
The cost of a Bitcoin escrow depends on the network’s congestion. For small trades under $10, we recommend choosing another crypto.
This is likely not the final version of the LocalCryptos’ non-custodial Bitcoin escrow. In the future, we plan to optimise the system for cost and speed.